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Barley: Topic Page
Annual cereal plant (Hordeum vulgare and sometimes other species) of the family Gramineae (grass family), cultivated by humans probably as early as any cereal
Buckwheat: Topic Page
Common name for certain members of the Polygonaceae, a family of herbs and shrubs found chiefly in north temperate areas and having a characteristic pungent juice containing oxalic acid.
Corn: Topic Page
The name corn is given to the leading cereal crop of any major region. In England corn means wheat; in Scotland and Ireland, oats. The grain called corn in the United States is Indian corn or maize (Zea mays mays)
From Benders' dictionary of nutrition and food technology
Cereal of a number of species of Gramineae (grass family) smaller than wheat and rice and high in fibre content.
Oats: Topic Page
Cereal plants of the genus Avena of the family Gramineae (grass family). Most species are annuals of moist temperate regions. The early history of oats is obscure, but domestication is considered to be recent compared to that of the other grains—perhaps c.2500 B.C.
Quinoa: Topic Page
Pronounced “keen-wah,” quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an annual herb of the tropical American highlands and a native of Chile and Peru.
Rice: Topic Page
an erect grass, Oryza sativa, that grows in East Asia on wet ground and has drooping flower spikes and yellow oblong edible grains that become white when polished.
Rye: Topic Page
A cereal grass, Secale cereale, native to W Asia but widely cultivated in cool temperate and upland regions. 1-2 m high, it bears a terminal spike, 10-15 cm long, of numerous two- or three-flowered spikelets. The grain is milled to produce a dark-coloured flour, which is used in making black bread or for livestock feed.
Sorghum: Topic Page
Tall, coarse annual of the grass family, somewhat similar in appearance to corn (but having the grain in a panicle rather than an ear) and used for much the same purposes.
Wheat: Topic Page
Cereal plant of the genus Triticum of the family Gramineae (grass family), a major food and an important commodity on the world grain market.
Wild rice: Topic Page
Wild rice (called also Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats) is a hardy annual with broad blades, reedy stems, and large terminal panicles.
Bean: Topic Page
Name applied to the seeds of leguminous trees and shrubs and to various leguminous plants of the family Leguminosae (pulse family) with edible seeds or seed pods (legumes).
Chickpea: Topic Page
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum), a cool-season legume, ranks as the 15th most important crop in area planted annually in the world.
Fava Bean: Topic Page
The seed of a legume, Vicia faba, eaten as the whole pod when very young (up to 8 cm) or as green unripe oval-shaped beans from more mature pods (up to 30 cm). Usually boiled but uncooked beans are eaten as a snack food in the eastern Mediterranean.
Lentils: Topic Page
Lentil (Lens culinaris) (a cool-season legume) is an ancient crop that has been grown for more than 8500 years.
Soybean: Topic Page
Originally grown as a food crop for animals, it is increasingly used for human consumption in cooking oils and margarine, as a flour, soya milk, soy sauce, or processed into tofu, miso, or textured vegetable protein.
Nuts & Seeds
Almond: Topic Page
The "nuts" of sweet-almond varieties are eaten raw or roasted and are pressed to obtain almond oil. Bitter-almond varieties also yield oil, from which the poisonous prussic acid is removed in the extraction process. Almond oil is used for flavoring, in soaps and cosmetics, and medicinally as a demulcent.
Mustard: Topic Page
Common name for the Cruciferae, a large family chiefly of herbs of north temperate regions. The easily distinguished flowers of the Cruciferae have four petals arranged diagonally ( "cruciform" ) and alternating with the four sepals.
Peanut: Topic Page
Name for a low, annual leguminous plant (Arachis hypogaea) of the family Leguminosae and for its edible seeds.
Walnut: Topic Page
Common name for some members of the Juglandaceae, a family of chiefly deciduous, resinous trees characterized by large and aromatic compound leaves.
Spices & Herbs
Allspice: Topic Page
Allspice (Pimenta officinalis, Myrtaceae) is the dried, unripe berries of the small tropical tree.
Angelica: Topic Page
Any species of the genus Angelica, plants of the family Umbelliferae (parsley family), native to the Northern Hemisphere and New Zealand,
Anise: Topic Page
Annual plant (Pimpinella anisum) of the family Umbelliferae (parsley family), native to the Mediterranean region but long cultivated elsewhere for its aromatic and medicinal qualities.
Basil: Topic Page
An herb that is part of the mint family, is native to India (and possibly Africa as well), and is known as the tomato's best friend, basil (Ocimum basilicum = O. americanum) comes in many types - and more than a few colors - that are now distributed worldwide.
Dill: Topic Page
Old World annual or biennial plant (Anethum graveolens) of the family Umbelliferae (parsley family), cultivated since at least since 400 b.c. The pungent, aromatic leaves and seeds are used for pickling and for flavoring sauces, salads, and soups.
Fennel: Topic Page
Common name for several perennial herbs, genus Foeniculum vulgare of the family Umbelliferae (parsley family), related to dill. The strawlike foliage and the seeds are licorice-scented and are used (especially in Italian cooking) for flavoring.
Mallow: Topic Page
Common name for members of the Malvaceae, a family of herbs and shrubs distributed over most of the world and especially abundant in the American tropics. Tropical species sometimes grow as small trees. The family is characterized by often mucilaginous sap and by showy, five-part flowers with a prominent column of fused stamens.
Milkweed: Topic Page
Common name for members of the Asclepiadaceae, a family of mostly perennial herbs and shrubs characterized by milky sap, a tuft of silky hairs attached to the seed (for wind distribution), and (usually) a climbing habit.
Oregano: Topic Page
Name for several herbs used for flavoring food. A plant of the family Labiatae (mint family), Origanum vulgare, also called Spanish thyme and wild marjoram, is the usual source for the spice sold as oregano in the Mediterranean countries and in the United States.
Rosemary: Topic Page
An aromatic herb, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a Mediterranean native whose Latin name means “dew of the sea,” presumably because it was frequently found growing close to the coast.
Rue: Topic Page
Common name for various members of the family Rutaceae, a large group of plants distributed throughout temperate and tropical regions and most abundant in S Africa and Australia. Most species are woody shrubs or small trees; many are evergreen and bear spines.
Sage: Topic Page
Any species of the large genus Salvia, aromatic herbs or shrubs of the family Labiatae (mint family). The common sage of herb gardens is S. officinalis, a strongly scented shrubby perennial, native from S Europe to Asia Minor.
Spice: Topic Page
Aromatic vegetable product used as a flavoring or condiment.
Tea: Topic Page
Tree or bush, its leaves, and the beverage made from these leaves. The plant (Camellia sinensis,Thea sinensis, or C. thea) is an evergreen related to the camellia and indigenous to Assam (India) and probably to parts of China and Japan.
Thyme: Topic Page
Thyme, a strongly flavored herb that comes in many varieties, has leaves that are used both fresh and dried.
Tobacco: Topic Page
Any of a group of large-leaved plants belonging to the nightshade family, native to tropical parts of the Americas.
Vetch: Topic Page
The vetches are chiefly annuals, distributed over temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and of South America. Most of the species cultivated for food and forage are Old World in origin. The common vetch (V. sativa), also called spring vetch, is a purple- or pink-flowered climber native to Europe, where it is grown for fodder.
Parsley: Topic Page
A hardy biennial plant with either bright green very curly leaves, Petroselinum crispum, or flat duller leaves, P. crispum ‘Neapolitanum'.
Wintergreen: Topic Page
An evergreen creeping perennial herb or small shrub of the family Pyrolaceae (about 35 species), found in N temperate and arctic regions.
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