GIS or Geospatial Information System is a computer based approach to organizing, analysing and visualizing spatial data.
GIS has antecedants in both cartography (visualization) and statistics (analysis). GIS was developed in the 1950 and 60s in data rich environments and as a result, GIS software has very robust analytic toolsets. As an analytic tool, GIS has a broad area of application including: Biology, City and Regional Planning, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Anthropology and Archaeology, Criminal Justice, Political Science, Sociology, Public Health and Transporation Systems. As a vizualization tool it has applications in all disciplines aforesaid and some liberal arts like History.